There are nine main attributes, and several secondary attributes, partially derived from the main ones. Each main attribute has a corresponding attribute potential, which governs how high it may rise through training.

Main Attributes[]

Base values[]

The base value of an attribute is the character's natural, unmodified score. Methods of training or raising attributes that only function at certain attribute levels use this value to determine whether they work. Base values can be between 1 and 99.

Modified values[]

The modified value or total value of an attribute is the character's score after any modifiers and temporary boosts are applied. This value determines the capabilities of the character for all purposes other than training or raising the base attribute. Modified values can be between 1 and 99.

Attribute modifiers[]

Semi-permanent attribute modifiers result from particular equipment, corruptions, or other special circumstances (such as daylight penalties for orcs).

Attribute boosts[]

Attribute boosts result from items such as boost potions. Attribute boosts wear off as turns pass. Although the total value of an attribute can never exceed 99, there is no limit to the amount of attribute boosting that can be accumulated.


Training or abusing an attribute increases a hidden value. The game checks the value periodically and has a chance to increase or decrease attributes depending on the magnitude of the total training values. Regardless of whether a change occurs, the training values are then brought closer to zero. A check for attribute changes is guaranteed to happen on level-up. An attribute cannot be trained if it is at its potential maximum.


Various effects can directly increase the base value of an attribute. These effects fall under four categories.

Effects that cannot increase potential[]

These effects simply do not work if the attribute is at its potential maximum. Corpse effects often fall under this category, as do less powerful attribute increasing items such as crystals of knowledge and potions of balance.

Effects that can increase potential[]

These effects will not increase an attribute if it is at its potential maximum, but can instead increase the attribute's potential. Corpse effects of more powerful monsters often fall under this category.

Effects that are only partially affected by potential[]

These effects can increase an attribute, but their magnitude is decreased when at potential maximum and at high levels of the attribute. Effects that give an increase of "up to" a certain amount function this way.

Effects that ignore potential[]

These effects are unaffected by an attribute's potential maximum, and will simply increase the potential along with the attribute if necessary. Powerful attribute increasing items such as potions of strength and potions of gain attributes fall under this category.

Secondary Attributes[]